Friday, May 22, 2020

Is The Self Reference Effect More Effective On Children s...

Is the Self Reference Effect More Effective On Children’s Memory Rather Than Adults? Madison Herley Professor Cooke General Psychology 101 April 21, 2016 Abstract The study will investigate the self reference effect with two different age groups. The two age groups will be young and older adults, trying to obtain material. The first group is told to relate that information to themselves or past experiences and, the second group is only told to review the material given. The purpose of this experiment is to see if the self reference effect is more beneficial to children rather than adults. To conduct this study, the observer has to use the naturalistic research stragesty and also see the within experimental designs. In order to have a positive income on the self reference effect. Throughout, my research I have found, â€Å"like young adults, older adults exhibited superior recognition for self-referenced items relative to the items encoded with the alternate orienting tasks, but self-referencing did not restore their memory to the level of young adults† (Gutchess, A. H., Kensinger, E. A., Yoon, C., Schacter, D. L. 1). Thus, from past re search experiments the self reference effect has seen to be more limited in adults than children. Does the self reference effect more beneficial to children than adults? My study is based on how the self reference effect will help children’s memory rather than adults because children’s brains are still developing. â€Å"Children develop a cohesiveShow MoreRelatedAnalyzing The Article Detecting The Snake 892 Words   |  4 PagesIn the article â€Å"Detecting the snake in the grass: Attention to fear†relevant stimuli by adults and young children† published by Psychological Science authors Vanessa LoBue and Judy S. DeLoache analyze the evidence that children detect threatening stimuli more promptly than other types of stimuli. In this experiment, adults and children were presented with images with both threatening and non-threatening stimuli. The images were presented on a touch screen and participants were asked to press onRead MoreADOLESCENT DEPRESSION1008 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Adolescent depression is a disorder that affects teenagers. It leads to sadness, discouragement, and a loss of self-worth and interest in their usual activities. Everyone experiences some unhappiness, often as a result of a change, either in the form of a setback or a loss, or simply, as Freud said, Everyday misery. The painful feelings that accompany these events are usually appropriate and temporary, and can even present an opportunity for personal growth and improvement. However, when sadnessRead MoreThe Importance Of Play And Its Effect On Cognition, Linguistics, And Pragmatics1501 Words   |  7 Pagesexplores the importance of play and its effect on cognition, linguistics, and pragmatics in infants and toddlers and how play can affect their social competence as preschoolers. Assessment of Play In a third world country, some Hmong parents’ believe in the teaching for survival needs are important and necessary in order to survive. Chores were evenly distributed throughout the family who were capable to contribute to everyday labor. However, young children who cannot contribute were allowed toRead MoreDementia: How and Whom Does It Affect?5576 Words   |  23 PagesB-23LUO Instructor: Dr. Richard Pace Shelly M. 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The purpose of this paper will be to answer some of these questions, so that a betterRead MoreEffects Concerning School-Age Bullying: A Retrospective Examination of College Students Experiences3654 Words   |  15 Pagesexperiences and effects concerning school-age bullying Table of Contents Abstract: 3 Introduction: 4 Childhood Teasing: 4 School age bullying: 6 Experiences of college Students: 7 Long term Consequences: 8 Relationship with Interpersonal Functioning: 9 Relationship with anxiety and depression: 10 Relationship with trust: 11 Relationship with quality of friendship: 12 Coping Strategy: 12 Conclusion: 13 References: 15 Abstract: The adults carry a profound memory of certain eventsRead MoreCognitive Resilience in Adulthood9822 Words   |  40 Pagescognitive growth. Cognitive development shows wide variation among individuals through the adult life span, and there is long-standing concern with why some age more successfully than others. Our goal in this chapter is to explore the nature of such cognitive resilience through adulthood. Historically, the concept of resilience arose in the child development literature as a framework to understand why some children who grow up under circumstances of great adversity, nevertheless, thrive (Masten amp;Read MoreUndocumented Border By Erin Clark1592 Words   |  7 Pagesto loom over the 21st century as more and more poverty stricken countries are under financial strain. It is the national movement of people into a country in which they are not natives or where they do not possess residency and citizenship as their own country has fallen due to possibly natural disasters, war and regime. The debate still remains as to whether immigrants; illegal or not are to be either sent back to their countries or given less opportunities than citizens of their chosen countryRead MoreTechnology : Overused By Children1740 Words   |  7 PagesTechnology: Overused by Children â€Å"Our children’s digital lives are turning them into much different creatures from us – and not necessarily for the better.† – Dalton Conley, Time Magazine Imagine a world without technology. It is almost impossible to do and might even cause the average Millennial some major anxiety. Every day we use it whether it is our cars, phones, shopping, games and most importantly in the education of students. Homework, class assignments and grades are accessed via blackboardRead MoreMethods of Instruction for Teaching Mathematics Essay1879 Words   |  8 Pagesmathematics. The preponderance of the students picked broccoli. The terror of math encompasses into later life. According to research by the non-profit institute Change the Equation in 2010, nearly one-third of Americans would rather clean an unsanitary bathrooms than do a mathematics assignment. (Paul, 2013). However for many individuals, this isn’t a simple matter of disliking math. In schools today, there are currently 2.4 million students diagnosed with a learning disability. LearningRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay2059 Words   |  9 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD is the name more commonly referred to as is a disorder that happens to someone who encounters a traumatizing event in their life that replays over and over in their head. This causes issues with them being able to function in their daily lives. Typically, when you hear PTSD you normally think of war hero’s or veterans who have seen people die, and killed people. This is where people are wrong, notice how I said an event that happens

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Major Theories Of Criminal Behavior And The Impact Of...

Psychology of Human and Criminal Behaviour Describing and Evaluating the Major Theories of Cause of Criminal Behaviour and the Impact of Crime on Victims and Society London Foundation campus 1. Introduction Akers Sellers (2013) noted that there are various common theories that are pertinent to the study of crime as the extents of crime explanations range from the genetic/biological through to the economic and social perspective. Howitt (2012) divided these theories into four categories: macro-level or societal theories; locality or community level theories; group and socialisation influence theories; and individual level theories. This essay first describes the major theories of crime in the discussion section, which also discusses the impacts of crime at the individual and societal level, followed by conclusion based on the previous discussion. 2. Discussion on the Major Theories of Criminal Behaviour Macro-level or societal theories include Marxist conflict theory, Robert Merton’s strain theory, and Feminist theory (Howitt, 2012). According to Howitt (2012), Marxist conflict theory contains that societies have emerged from states of conflicts between competing groups in societies over institutionalised powers and material resources. Consequently, the prevailing class employs laws for controlling other groups and maintaining its supremacy and command. As a result, conflict criminological researches tend to emphasise on the differential treatmentsShow MoreRelatedRestorative Justice Is The Process Of Rebuilding Relationships With The Victims, Offenders, And The Community1602 Words   |  7 Pagesprocess of rebuilding relationships with the victims, offenders, and the community that are guided by principles of the law. In the beginning offenders went through criminal prosecution and conventional sentencing to deal with crime in the community which did not restore anything for the victim. As an alternative, advocates of restorative justice suggest that the guiding principles of the criminal sanction should be to decrease harm by restoring the victim to his or her prior unharmed status and theRead MoreThe Theories Of Crime Causation1076 Words   |  5 Pages This paper will examine the three main theories of crime causation which comprise the Criminological Theory as well as provide some examples of each. The three main theories of crime causation are biological, sociological and psychological. Each of the three theories have come a long way since their inception and continue to be updated due to new findings through technological and medical advances. It also must be noted that these are theories and due to various factors and drawbacks to eachRead MoreWhy People Commit Crimes?1255 Words   |  6 PagesWhy People Commit Crimes Author: admin Monday, 22 Sep 2014 It is known that people commit crimes for various reasons, such as social factors, economic and cultural reasons. All these factors have negative impact on the individuals and trigger them to be involved in criminal activities. For example, social factors are focused on the role of society in the life of an individual. The reasons of many crimes are concluded in peer pressure, school failure, prejudices and stereotyping, etc. Economic reasonsRead MoreCrime Displacement And Diffusion Of The United States1078 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract Crime displacement and diffusion is a major concern in the United States. Crime neither seem to be increasing nor decrease throughout the years. Displacement brings more consequences and can occur when a harm is produced by displacement crime before the intervention. There are three theories that help explain why crime are committed, who are targeted and how to prevent from being a potential target. Being aware of your surroundings is extremely important. Analyzing offenders, victims and locationRead MoreDisplacement And Diffusion, Mass Media And Crime Prevention1222 Words   |  5 PagesDisplacement and Diffusion, Mass Media and Crime Prevention, General Deterrence Sem Crime Prevention/Control LaBrittani Poole-James October 6, 2017 Grambling State University Assignment 3: Displacement and Diffusion, Mass Media and Crime Prevention, General Deterrence 1. Evaluate the types of Crime Displacement Crime Displacement entails the relocation of a crime an aspect that can result from the actions of Police in their crime prevention efforts. Crime displacement results from various reasonsRead MoreCrimes Against Children1739 Words   |  7 Pages Crimes against Children, the Effects Techniques for Successful Outcomes ABSTRACT Child abuse clearly has a negative impact on children and can result in behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and developmental difficulties. This may lead to greater difficulties later in life that will extend into adulthood. The use of proper investigation techniques and appropriate handling of cases, however, can result in less traumatization for child abuse victims. Read MoreHotel Rwanda vs. Erin Brockovich1660 Words   |  7 Pagessimilar dangerous social problems. The conflicts that are portrayed are different in the means of operation but both share a similar end with the endangerment of thousands of people. We will examine how these deviant decisions affect both their societies and the reasons behind these atrocious acts. Hotel Rwanda is a very graphic film filled with a tremendous amount of deviance and social problems. The Hutu tribe feels that the Tutsi should not be in power and the Hutu extremists try to overtakeRead MoreCrime And Violence Essay1233 Words   |  5 PagesCrime is defined as an offensive act committed by a person that must be punished by law. In our society, there are always some people that cannot stop themselves from doing a crime against humanity. The crimes ranged from burglary to rape to homicide. When an individual intentionally hurts another person physically and mentally, it is a serious problem. This type of behavior is not acceptable because it can have an enormous negative impact on the victimized. Some people may commit crimes out of desperationRead MoreAnalysis of the Film Silence of the Lambs1358 Words   |  5 Pagesheinous crimes committed by these people. One such film program that adapts crimes committed by serial murderers, and the murderers themselves, is The Silence of the Lambs (1991). Through a combination of criminology, psychology, and sociology, The Silence of the Lambs is able to not only inform audiences of the dangerous types of people that currently inhabit society, but also of the individuals who study serial murderers with the intent of apprehending them before they commit any more crimes and toRead MorePolice Officers Handle Duties And Property Of The Public Essay842 Words   |  4 PagesSmith returned fire† (Humphrey et al., 2015, p. 2). Lastly, Humphrey et al. (2015) wrote that both suspect and victim were taken to the same hospital; â€Å"Myers, who underwent surgery, clung to life . . . for three more hours [after Smith had died]† (p. 2). Many thought come to mind, for the reason why Smith decided to end the life of Deputy Myers. One assumption I have for this criminal act is that, Myers became part of a bad situation when he presented Smith with domestic violence papers. From what

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The use of teacher questions in learning and teaching Free Essays

Introduction Questioning is one of the most of import accomplishments in effectual instruction. Through oppugning a instructor can assist pupils organize relationships, guarantee success, bring on the engagement of inattentive pupils, and enhance pupils ‘ self-pride ( Eggen A ; Kauchak, 1996, P40 ) . Research workers overwhelmed with oppugning techniques highlighted the importance of oppugning in learning as an effectual tool in learning. We will write a custom essay sample on The use of teacher questions in learning and teaching or any similar topic only for you Order Now A inquiry is defined as: â€Å" any sentence that has an interrogative signifier † ( Cotton, Undated ) . In a schoolroom, the instructor ‘s inquiries are meant to be a tool intended to pass on the content elements to be learned and the instructions for what they are expected to make and the mode to make it. ( Cotton, ( Undated ) . Aschner ( 1961 ) cited in. Gall ( 1970 ) , for illustration, called the instructor â€Å" a professional inquiry shaper † and claimed that inquiring inquiries is one of the basic ways by which the instructors stimulated pupils believing and acquisition. Purpose: This paper is an effort to look into the usage of the different types of inquiries inside the schoolroom in relation to the cognitive theories. Background and significance: This survey is conducted at Fujairah Institute of Nursing ( ION ) .This institute is one out of three institutes from the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) in the United Arab Emirates ( UAE ) , which are learning nursing sheepskin for local and expatriates. There are three degrees of pupils ; these are diploma one ( DI ) , diploma two ( DII ) , and sheepskin three ( DIII ) . At Fujairah ION, there are 13 instructors ; some of them are Bachelors ‘ grade holders while others are master prepared. The experience of the instructors ranges between two to fifteen old ages. The instructors normally apply two methods of learning harmonizing to the ION policy ; these are Lecture Based and Case Based instruction. The admittance standards of credence of pupils emphasize that pupils must go through the high school with an norm of 70 % in the scientific watercourse. All classs are taught in English. On the footing of my personal instruction experience in the nursing field for the last 10 old ages, seven of them as a senior nursing coach at the ION – MOH – UAE. I have noticed that good inquiring technique is indispensable in the development of pupil ‘s apprehension and critical thought. Furthermore, the chief end of the ION is to develop long life scholar through the usage of Case Based Learning Method and synergistic Lecture Based Method where the instructor showered the pupils with different types of inquiries to ease the treatment in the schoolroom. This could non go on efficaciously if the facilitators have no inquiring technique. Furthermore, because of my personal involvement in bettering the quality of instruction and oppugning technique in ION, and since cipher has investigated the impact of good oppugning on pupil ‘s apprehension. I feel the impulse to analyze the part of this facet to the acquisition procedure. The consequence is expected to br ing out the degree of oppugning ( high- order, low order ) and the consequence of inquiries on pupils ‘ comprehension. Literature reappraisal The usage of oppugning helps instructors to analyze scholars ‘ comprehension. Questioning is besides utile for scholars as it encourages battle and focuses their thought on cardinal constructs and thoughts. Good learning involves how to inquire inquiries for maximal consequence. Some instructors ‘ inquiries are low cognitive 1s that ask pupils to give background information that they already have. Such inquiries have assorted advantages ( 1994, Airasian, et Al ) cited in Omrod, J, E. ( 2007 ) ( P475 ) .First, oppugning gives us an apprehension of the pupils ‘ old cognition and wrong thoughts about atopic. Second, they tend to look after pupils ‘ concentration on the lesson advancement. Third, they help us measure whether pupils are larning hard stuff efficaciously or are puzzled about peculiar accent. Fourth, they give pupils the opportunity to detect their apprehension. Finally, inquiries about the earlier erudite information promote reappraisal of the stuff, which should further greater recollection afterwards. Another type of inquiries is the high cognitive inquiries – those that entail the pupils to believe critically beyond what they have learned ( Minstrell and Stimpsen, 1996 ; Progrow and Londer 1994 ) cited in Omrod, J, E. ( 2007 ) ( P475 ) . Using the higher- degree inquiries help pupils to believe of their ain illustrations of ideas, use new criterions to work out a job or speculate about possible reading of cause A ; effects relationship and to advance critical thought. One of the basic theories in oppugning was reflected in Benjamin Bloom ‘s taxonomy ( 1956 ) who builds a system of classs of larning behaviour to assist us in planing and measuring educational acquisition. The taxonomy was ordered in grade of trouble from simple callback of facts on the lowest degree, through progressively more complex and abstract mental degrees, to the highest order making ( synthesis ) after being modified by his informer pupil Anderson ( 1994 ) . ( See Appendix E ) . An of import rule of Bloom ‘s Taxonomy is that each degree must be mastered before doing advancement to the following. The cardinal component of Bloom ‘s taxonomy is in its prompt that we want pupils to hold many degrees at accomplishments. Bloom found that over 95 % of the trial inquiries require the pupils to believe merely at the minimal degree. Teachers should be professional in the preparation of the inquiries and pay attending to their dictions as wide or narrow diction could restrict pupils ‘ response. Furthermore, instructors ‘ inquiries should be based on the cognitive degree of pupils instead than their classs. Piaget, another psychologist, stated that larning and believing involve scholar ‘s engagement. Knowledge is non strictly transmitted verbally but must be constructed and reconstructed by the scholar. Intelligence is good kept through assimilation and adjustment ; hence, experiences should be considered to give opportunities for assimilation and adjustment. Harmonizing to Piaget, scholars need to research, to pull strings, to experiment, to inquiry, and to seek out replies for themselves – activity is indispensable. Direction should be individualized every bit much as possible and scholars should pass on with each others, to challenge and discourse issues. Piaget considers instructors as facilitators of cognition – they instruct, engage and motivate pupils. Learning is much more meaningful when larning springs from their experiences. Consequently, instructors can utilize assorted types of inquiries to excite the scholars ‘ believing about abstract constructs taking into consideration their developmental degree since development precedes acquisition. Teachers should carefully be after their inquiries and move from one phase to another depending on the cognitive procedure of the scholar, Therefore, there should be a correspondence between the cognitive degree of instructors ‘ inquiries and the cognitive ability of the pupils ‘ replies. Harmonizing to Vygotsky ( 1920s-1934 ) , rational development takes topographic point in term of societal history and sociocultural background ( Luria, I 976 ) . That is, cognitive accomplishments and forms of thought of an person are non congenital factors, but are gained from interaction within his sociocultural environment. Vygotsky believed that larning takes topographic point when kids are working within their zone of proximal development ( ZPD ) . That is, the ZPD describes undertakings that a kid has non yet learned but is capable of larning at a given clip. A cardinal thought derived from Vygotsky ‘s impression of societal acquisition is that of staging ; the aid provided by more competent equals or grownups. Typically, scaffolding agencies supplying a kid with a great trade of support during the early phases of acquisition. The instructor should see prosecuting pupils at the upper degrees enthusiastically without overpowering them. Vygotsky considered that the instruct or as a scaffold that can assist the persons learn by seting his instructions and inquiries harmonizing to the kid ‘s degree of public presentation — is an effectual signifier of learning. Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that larning returns development. Vygostyan psychological science ( Vygotskij, 1978, 1999, 2002 ) ; any cognition is based on a peculiar degree of abstraction. As a consequence, the proper usage of instructors ‘ inquiry even in the signifier of fact could take to abstraction which is contrary to Bloom. A considerable figure of research workers have studied the usage of inquiries in the schoolroom by the instructors and their findings were congruous. The figure and types of inquiries asked by instructors during the instruction procedure varies. Harmonizing to Gall, ( 1970 ) the usage of inquiries in the schoolroom over a 50 twelvemonth period reveals that the chief tendency has been the development of techniques to depict inquiries used by instructor. It is clear for pedagogues that inquiries play an of import function in learning. Aschner ( 1961 ) called the instructor â€Å" a professional inquiries shaper † . Flander ( 1970 ) cited in Gall, ( 1970 ) P3 ) stated that inquiring inquiry is one of the 10 major treatments for analyzing instructors ‘ behaviours in the widely used system for interaction analysis. Hastings ( 1912 ) cited in Gall ( 1970 ) P3 ) . An mean instructor asks 400 inquiries in a twenty-four hours, this means that most of the instruction clip is occup ied with inquiries and replies. Educators by and large see oculus to oculus that instructors should emphasize the development of pupils ‘ accomplishment in critical thought instead than in remembering facts. Harmonizing to Gall, Approximately 60 % of instructor ‘s quest on callback facts, approximately 20 % require pupils to believe and the staying 20 % are procedural. In another survey by Hussein ( 2006 ) , three instructors observed asked a sum of 782 inquiries consisting academic, non-academic, and pseudo inquiries in 16 observation Sessionss. The perceiver documented ( 526 ) inquiries, three hundred fifty four ( 354 or 67.3 % ) of these inquiries were in the academic class. The bulk of the academic inquiries were low-level ( 458, 87 % ) and the staying 68 inquiries ( 13 % ) were high-ranking. In the survey of Graesser and Person ( 1994 ) , 96 % of the inquiries in a schoolroom environment are instructors ‘ inquiries. In add-on to being rare and short, student inquiries are besides simple ( Dillon, 1988 ; Flammer, 1981 ; Kerry, 1987 ) cited in Graesser A ; Person ) . That is, they are usually superficial, short-answer inquiries that deal with the content and reading of distinct stuff ; they are seldom high-cognitive inquiries that involve illations, multistep analysis, or the averment of critical judgement. Research Question: This paper is an effort to reply the undermentioned inquiry: What types of inquiries are used by the instructor? How different or similar are these inquiries to the researches findings? Methodology Design A descriptive survey design will be used to analyze the degree of inquiries posed by the instructors, based on the revised Bloom ‘s taxonomy of the inquiry degree. The consequences will be tabulated utilizing simple statistical analysis to advert some: Sums, and Percentages, Sample and Puting The research worker will carry on two Sessionss of observations in two nursing categories. These are: DI A ; DII ; each category consists of 25 and 28 grownup pupils severally and learns through talk based method. They lie in the ( Formal operational phase of development ) harmonizing to Piaget. Two instructors will be observed are: first is a holder of a maestro grade in Medical surgical nursing, has an experience for two old ages in nursing instruction ; the 2nd possess a Bachelor ‘s Of Nursing Science, and has seven old ages of learning experience. The oppugning technique of the instructor will be assessed and evaluated through direct schoolroom observation in relation to the cognitive theory ( Bloom, Piaget and Vygotsky ) The revised version of Bloom ‘s taxonomy ( updated by Anderson, 1994 ) will be used as a process to measure the degree of oppugning. ( See appendix E ) The ethical considerations of carry oning this piece of research were carefully considered. Three consent letters were obtained from the Branch Manager every bit good as the concerned instructors. Procedure: 1. A missive will be sent to the principal to acquire permission for observation. ( Appendix C ) 2. A missive will be sent to the concerned instructors that I will go to their categories. ( Appendix D ) 3. The schoolroom oppugning observation clip will be 100 proceedingss, 50 proceedingss for each Class session. 4. The findings of the survey will be compared with the consequences of the surveies done by Gall, 1970 ( The usage of inquiries in learning ) , Graesser and Person 1994, ( Question inquiring during tutoring ) and Hussein, 2006 ( Dimensions of Questioning: A Qualitative Study of Current Classroom Practice in Malaysia ) . Datas Analysis The figure and type of instructors ‘ will be counted and analyzed. I calculated the frequence of inquiries asked by the instructors and categorized them harmonizing to high cognitive order and low cognitive order based on bloom ‘s taxonomy. The per centum of the entire figure of inquiries was calculated to ease readability and comparing between two categories. Consequences Degree of inquiry Class I Class II Low Cognitive Remembering 25 ( 66 % ) 17 ( 63 % ) Understanding 10 ( 26 % ) 6 ( 22 % ) 92 % 85 % Using High Cognitive Analyzing 2 ( 5 % ) 2 ( 7 % ) Measuring Making 1 ( 3 % ) 2 ( 7 % ) 8 % 14 % Sum 38 27 Discussion: With regard to this figure of inquiries: The findings of this survey showed that the figure of asked inquiries ( C1 =38, C2 =27 ) falls in scope with the findings of the survey of ( Graesser and Natalie ) ’30 to 120 inquiries per hr ‘ With regard to the frequence of low cognitive inquiries: It is obvious from the findings that the bulk of inquiries ( C1 =92 % , C2 =85 % ) prevarication in the low cognitive order. Compared to the findings of ( Gall. 1970 ) and Hussein ( 2006 ) who severally found that 77 % and 87 % of instructors ‘ inquiries are of factual type. The figure of inquiries which lie in low cognitive order is rather higher based on my personal category room observations ; even the inquiries asked at the higher degree ( C1 =8 % , C2 =14 % ) were non answered right by the pupils. Teachers were noticed to feed the pupils with appropriated responses which will non excite abstract believing but contrary to that recalling and memorisation will ; term to be the existent term fro eg. 1. Scaffolding Teacher: What is the consequence of pneumonic high blood pressure on the right side of the bosom? Students: did non react to the inquiry. Teacher Scaffold them: Could depict the pneumonic circulation. 2. Formal operational: How is the clinical presentation of right ventricular failure different from the left side ventricular failure? Students: No response Traveling rearward from formal to concrete was quoted in the undermentioned event: Teacher: What are the maps of the left and right side of the bosom? Although the instructor was inquiring inquiries at frequent manner there was no adequate attending to the degree of the asked inquiries ; most of the inquiry did necessitate recalling and rote memory acquisition. This is an indicant that either instructors are non good trained or the higher order cognitive inquiries are non decently formulated or the pupils are non good coached to react to such types of inquiry. Students ‘ readying plays a function in reacting to higher degree of oppugning. If pupils are non good prepared, they will non be able to group the indispensable subject of the asked inquiry and therefore they will non catch up the higher cognitive degree inquiries. Connection with learning Theories: During my schoolroom observations, I was able to happen a nexus between many of the instructor ‘s inquiries and the cognitive theories from illustration. 1. Vygotsky /scaffolding: – Teacher: what is the consequence of left ventricular failure on the cardiac end product? – Students: did n’t react to the instructor and seemed confused. – Teacher gave them a intimation by simplifying the inquiries what are the determiners of Cardiac out? – Students answered: † Blood force per unit area, and contraction. – Teacher: What is the consequence of contract on CO? 2. Formal a Concrete ( Piaget ) Teacher: What is the principle behind dypsnea in platinum holding left ventricular failure? Students: did n’t reply Teachers: ( moves to concrete ) What causes dypsnea? Student: lung upset Teacher: What is incorrect with lung? Recommendations: Teachers must be cognizant of the different degree of inquiries. Teachers should be watchful to the importance of effectual schoolroom inquiry technique in advancing pupil apprehensions. Training plan should be conducted for instructors. Students should be trained and coached on how to react to higher order inquiries. Teachers should be cognizant that even higher order inquiries could be misused to fall in the low cognitive order. Teacher should see that each pupil does non larn in the same manner. Teachers should excite all the pupils to inquire and take part in the treatment. Teachers should do certain that appropriate waiting clip is given to reply the inquiries sing the degree of the inquiry. Teachers should inquire inquiries that encourage pupils to utilize schemes and critical thought accomplishments. Contemplation: Good inquiring technique improves the apprehension of the pupils and accordingly the result of the cognitive acquisition when the inquiries match the cognitive abilities of the pupils. Consequently larning and cognitive theories should be implemented in the schoolrooms. Furthermore, the consequence of this survey supports the recommendations of Gall that instructors do necessitate in-service and professional development programmed to better their inquiring accomplishments. Furthermore, the findings of Gall and Hussein are prevailing in the current survey. There are no indispensable alterations from 1970 boulder clay 2010. The research worker noticed that the inquiries were non distributed every bit among the pupils even a considerable portion of pupils were non engaged in the treatment particularly in DII. This could be due to hapless or unequal readying of the pupils, although it is the duty of the instructor to excite all the pupils. Furthermore, there was a noticeable job in the question-answer waiting clip ; for e.g. the instructor gave 15 seconds for a low cognitive inquiry whereas a high cognitive inquiry was given 12 seconds. The great majority of the inquiries were administered by the instructors and pupils were non encouraged to inquire inquiries. Restrictions of the survey It is worthy to advert that the range of this survey is limited to two instructors of nursing in one school in an educational zone. Some variables like instructor ‘s readying which influence the oppugning accomplishments were non measured. Students ‘ readying and inquiries were non measured besides. How to cite The use of teacher questions in learning and teaching, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Influence Of Hip-Hop Essays - African-American Culture, Music

Influence Of Hip-Hop Influence of Hip-Hop Controversy has always been a prominent characteristic of popular music throughout the twentieth century. Whether it be the controversy surrounding Elvis' swinging hips, the Doors' suggestive lyrics, or Alice Cooper's stage antics, this controversy always seems to be followed by undue criticism from the media. One form of musical expression that has been in the news recently because of its negative attention is hip-hop. Rap, a relatively new form of musical exposition, has been criticized for its so-called anti-women lyrics. Some have even said that these types of lyrics are veering toward rape music (Faludi 267). This is just simply not true. Once thought of as a passing fad, rap has been able to fabricate many facets of popular culture. Due to their raw and insouciant lyrics, many artists have met opposition by conservative groups that believe rap spreads an anti-women message. These groups argue that the lyrics in many rap songs degrade women by calling them bitches, hoes, and tricks. These words, however, do little more than sell records. It is the image that rap artists represent as a whole that the youth of America buy. Although these terms may sound degrading, these lyrics have no real influence on America's image of women. These words are just a tool of the musicians that helps give them an appearance of being Benninger 2 gangsters, pimps, or dealers. It is these types of people that represent power and control to some or a glimpse into an unknown world to others. Either way, this image is what makes money. Further proof that rap artists are selling an image and not real life is that many rap artists are happily married men with wives and children that they truly care about. Dr. Dre, one of the forefathers of hardcore rap, in an interview with MTV, readily admitted that what he sells in his music is not a life that he himself wishes to live. He, like many other rap artists, does not view women as derogatory sex objects as they are depicted in his lyrics (MTV 3). Songs such as Bitchez [sic] ain't Shit and Bridget in which women are referred to as hoes do not really represent how Dr. Dre and many other rap artists feel about women. Dre said, people buy the type of music that I make. As long as people keep buying it, I will keep making it (MTV 2). Linda Tuzynski, a mother of six and housewife, sees no problem with rap music. It's just a image. No one really thinks of their mothers, wives, girlfriends, or daughters as bitches or hoes. She says the only issue she has with rap music is young children listening to it. But, she says, as long as parents monitor what their children listen to when they are too young, it is not a problem. Society has always been able to move on and eventually accept different ways of expressing oneself, and hip-hop should be no different. Although the message may not be the best one, each musician has the right to say whatever he or she feels. Rap music has no real influence on the image America has of women. In this age of enlightenment Benninger 3 toward the images and ideas the media present, the only real image America should have of women is the image that women themselves furnish. These groups that bash rap music and tell people to avoid it because of its negative reflection on woman are missing the big picture. All musicians have a right to say whatever they want in their music, no matter how offending it might be to some people. It is protected under their constitutional rights as Americans. The bottom line is, if you do not like something, do not listen to it. Bibliography Faludi, Susan. Blame it on Feminism. Creating America 2nd Edition Ed. Joyce Moser, with Ann Watters. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999. 267. Loder, Kurt. MTV News. Internet. www.mtv.com. 2,3. Tuzynski, Linda. Personal Interview. 27 Oct. 2000.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Geography Essay Sample Summer in Different Parts of the Globe

Geography Essay Sample Summer in Different Parts of the Globe Geography Essay Sample: Summer in Different Parts of the Globe If you are going to write a college paper, it’s a good idea to look at an example first. This will help you understand the structure of an essay and what needs to be included. Here is a geography essay sample for you to reference when you write your own geography masterpiece. Often, people think that summer is warm, and the sun is always shining. This is not always the case for summer varies in different places around the world. There is not one single definition of the season when it is looked at from a global standpoint. There is a handful of differences between each country’s summer season and what it looks like. If you live in the northern hemisphere, you know that summer occurs in June, July, and August. Those who live in the southern hemisphere experience summer in December, January, and February. Not every country has their summer season at the same time. This is one of the major differences between summers in different places around the world. Another variation in summer around the world is that some places get warmer and drier while others get warmer and wetter. Drier climates often go through droughts in the summertime, which cuts back on their crop production. Tropical areas are known to be more humid, which means that summer is the â€Å"wet season†. This is also the season where the most vegetation grows in tropical countries. Hong Kong has a sub-tropical climate, which means that they grow many of their crops during the summer season. Overall, there are a few cities that are hotter than all of the rest. Kuwait City, Karachi, and Ahvaz often reach the highest temperatures when compared to others. Particularly, in Kuwait City, the temperature might reach 44 degrees Celsius, which is equivalent to 111 degrees Fahrenheit. This is common during the summer months from June to August. This city, along with Karachi and Ahvaz, experiences more than a few negative effects from the hot weather. The citizens are prone to heatwaves and poor air circulation. In the summer season of 2017 in the United States, a few states had especially hot weather. These temperatures were between 119 and 125 degrees Fahrenheit or between 48 and 51 degrees Celsius. These specific temperatures were recorded in the southwest region, including California, Arizona, and Nevada. Arizona’s capital city, Phoenix, had reached the temperature of 120 degrees Fahrenheit three times in its history. The high temperatures proved to be deadly and even resulted in heat waves. Of course, this is not what summer looks like all around the globe. In New Zealand, there can sometimes be a lack of consistency when it comes to weather. New Zealand is located relatively close to Antarctica. Recently, in January of 2017, this country should have been experiencing its summer season. Instead, it was met with a â€Å"weather bomb† which led to flooding and snowing. This is not abnormal for the country, which is located in the southern hemisphere. They have endured extreme weather conditions prior to the 2017 weather bomb. Well, there are a lot of ways that summer can present itself throughout the world. There is not one correct route to describe summer because it can look different in each city or country. Some countries have mild summers, while others have very extreme ones. Even a country’s summer season timing can vary by its location in either the northern or southern hemisphere. References: Birch, H. (2015, July 22). Where is the worlds hottest city? Retrieved March 21, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/jul/22/where-world-hottest-city-kuwait-karachi-ahvaz Cheng, V., Ng, E., Chan, C., Givoni, B. (2011). Outdoor thermal comfort study in a sub-tropical climate: A longitudinal study based in Hong Kong. International Journal of Biometeorology, 56(1), 43-56. doi:10.1007/s00484-010-0396-z Press, A. (2017, June 21). Scorching summer temperatures bring worst heat to south-west US in years. Retrieved March 21, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/20/heatwave-south-west-us-arizona-nevada-california Redd, N. T. (2015, June 19). Summer: The Warmest Season. Retrieved March 21, 2018, from https://www.livescience.com/24592-summer.html Roy, E. A. (2017, January 23). New Zealand hit by weather bomb bringing summer snow and flooding. Retrieved March 21, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/23/new-zealand-weather-bomb-summer-snow-flooding Staniforth, A., Thuburn, J. (2011). Horizontal grids for global weather and climate prediction models: A review. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 138(662), 1-26. doi:10.1002/qj.958 Waliser, D. E., Moncrieff, M. W., Burridge, D., Fink, A. H., Gochis, D., Goswami, B. N., . . . Yuter, S. (2012). The â€Å"Year† of Tropical Convection (May 2008–April 2010): Climate Variability and Weather Highlights. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93(8), 1189-1218. doi:10.1175/2011bams3095.1 As an option, you can contact our writing service for hiring custom essay writers  who are experts in writing excellent geography essays and research papers.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How to Balance a Redox Reaction in a Basic Solution

How to Balance a Redox Reaction in a Basic Solution Redox reactions commonly take place in acidic solutions. The could just as easily take place in basic solutions. This example problem shows how to balance a redox reaction in a basic solution.Redox reactions are balanced in basic solutions using the same half. In summary: Identify the oxidation and reduction components of the reaction.Separate the reaction into the oxidation half-reaction and reduction half-reaction.Balance each half-reaction both atomically and electronically.Equalize the electron transfer between oxidation and reduction half-equations.Recombine the half-reactions to form the complete redox reaction. This will balance the reaction in an acidic solution, where there is an excess of H ions. In basic solutions, there is an excess of OH- ions. The balanced reaction needs to be modified to remove the H ions and include OH- ions. Problem: Balance the following reaction in a basic solution:Cu(s) HNO3(aq) → Cu2(aq) NO(g) Solution: Balance the equation using the half. This reaction is the same one used in the example  but was balanced in an acidic environment. The example showed the balanced equation in the acidic solution was:3 Cu 2 HNO3 6 H→ 3 Cu2 2 NO 4 H2OThere are six H ions to remove. This is accomplished by adding the same number of OH- ions to both sides of the equation. In this case, add 6 OH- to both sides. 3 Cu 2 HNO3 6 H 6 OH- → 3 Cu2 2 NO 4 H2O 6 OH-The H ions and OH- combine to form a water molecule (HOH or H2O). In this case, 6 H2O are formed on the reactant side.3 Cu 2 HNO3 6 H2O → 3 Cu2 2 NO 4 H2O 6 OH-Cancel out the extraneous water molecules on both sides of the reaction. In this case, remove 4 H2O from both sides.3 Cu 2 HNO3 2 H2O → 3 Cu2 2 NO 6 OH-The reaction is now balanced in a basic solution.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

The Great Migrations of Africa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The Great Migrations of Africa - Essay Example Therefore, Mauch had a vision; he theorized that the Great Zimbabwe monuments had been actually made by Biblical characters visiting from the north. He stated: "I do not think that I am far wrong if I suppose that the ruin on the hill is a copy of Solomon's Temple on Mount Moriah and the building in the plain a copy of the palace where the Queen of Sheba lived during her visit to Solomon." Mauch further stated that a "civilized [read: white] nation must once have lived there." To us nowadays, this seems very far-fetched and the concept of the indigenous people actually building the monuments seems far more likely, but this was not true of most European assumptions during the late 1800s (Manu, 2004). The civilization actually existed around 1100-1450 AD, which was actually when the civilization was at the height of its power (Manu, 2004). There are still modern day settlers in the region, made up of mostly shone-speaking farmers. The civilization is located in south central Africa, which is considered current Zimbabwe, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. The actual site itself sits on a high plateau, over 1000 m (Manu, 2004). This civilization is important for a variety of reasons. First, this site, which includes the Great Enclosure wall, has its very impressive monuments which are only beaten out with impressiveness by the Egyptian pyramids (Manu, 2004). Furthermore, an extensive trading network formed through this region, and during the Medieval period, this was very important. The main focus of trade was on gold, copper, tin, cattle, and cowrie shells. This area was also important politically. For around 350 years, the civilization would be ruled by powerful rulers. The civilization was probably made up of around 18,000 inhabitants (Manu, 2004). In 350 AD Shona-speaking farmers settled in the region. They had migrated into the area to avoid the annoying tsetse flies, which can cause the deaths of not only people, but cattle as well through the disease known as sleeping sickness (Manu, 2004). The flies did not make appearances at such high altitudes, so the farmers were able to farm their cattle. At the end of the 11th century, the civilization began to develop (Manu, 2004). Intensified trading activities helped the civilization to expand. However, the civilization was not to last forever. It was abandoned around 1450 AD for reasons still unknown to historians today (Manu, 2004). There has been much speculation about this. It is known that the people left and started the northern kingdom of Monomotapa, as well as other states. Some historians have speculated that the fall could have been attributed to the population depleting land sources, over-farming, or perhaps a drastic weather change that could have hurt the trade marke t. Still, further research in this area is needed (Manu, 2004). Question Two The Bantu people began to migrate from the Congo or Niger Delta Basin. Their migration is so impressive because it is actually one of the largest ever seen in history. This incredible movement started at around 1000 AD and continued through 1800 AD (Nalubwama, 2009). However, historians are still unsure of why the movements happened in the first place. Therefore, there has been much speculation and theory for how and why this began. One theory given reflected on the concept that overpopulation may have inspired some groups of people to move into a different area, looking for areas and land to farm. Another